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Video guest: Josephine Mwangi

December 2018
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EDITO
Monday, 10 December 2018
Trans-boundary animal diseases have marred developments in the livestock sector in the Southern African region during the 2003/2004, says a SADC annual report released in Gaborone recently. According to the report, four countries reported Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) cases in the region in 2003. The worst CBPP or cattle lung disease cases were reported in Tanzania (URT) with 20 outbreaks (314 cases and 125 deaths) and Zambia with 17 outbreaks involving 1 165 cases and 827 deaths.
The disease is also a problem in Angola and Namibia where both morbidity and mortality was reported. The disease threatens more than 30 50 per cent of the 47 million cattle population of SADC. Fresh outbreaks of CBPP continued to invade new areas after losing periods of absence and the reason has always been uncontrolled cattle movements. The CBPP situation in southern Tanzania and Zambia is at very high risk level. SADC is in the process of adopting a regional approach for surveillance and control of CBPP. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was reported in Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Mozambique in the 2003.
According to the 2003 livestock, food and agricultural statistics (FAOSAT), the SADC region had 51.9 million head of cattle, 41 million sheep, 34.6 million goats, 5.5 million pigs, 1.6 equines and about 293 million of poultry. The report says SADC member states have significantly improved their national animal disease surveillance systems and are using information available from the surveillance system to define trends of animal diseases occurrence, determinants and economic impact, determinants and economic impact.
Efforts are under way to establish regional animal health database as part of the global livestock information management system to be established in the course of implementing the Promotional Regional Integration (PRINT) in Livestock project funded by the European Union (EU)." On other issues, the report states an estimated total of eight million metric tonnes of high value food products of animal origin, including beef, mutton, goat meat, pork, milk, and eggs was produced in the region during the year for human consumption.
These had an estimated value of over US$8 billion on the assumption that one metric tonne is worth on average US$1000.
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South Africa and the European Commission (EC) have signed an additional protocol on trade cooperation to continue the existing relations between the two.
The additional protocol to the Trade, Development and Co-operation Agreement (TDCA) provides for customs unions and free trade areas; extending the agreement to ten more European Union (EU) member states to bring the total to 25.
The signing by Trade and Industry Minister Mandisi Mpahlwa and his counterparts from the Netherlands and EC took place at a meeting President Thabo Mbeki held with EC President Jose Manuel Barroso here yesterday.
Presidents Mbeki and Barroso engaged in discussions "on critical matters" such as the outcome of the forthcoming G-8 Summit in Gleneagles in Scotland next month, the situation in Zimbabwe and peace and security in Africa.
Mr Mbeki said he indicated to Mr Barroso what the African community expected from the G-8 summit. "We are counting much on the support of the European Commission and the European Union," said Mr Mbeki.
He added that Africa relied much on the EU's experience in addressing issues of poverty and development. He mentioned that bilateral relations were working very well between South Africa and the EU, adding that they were looking at ways of expanding them.
Commenting on the recent "domestic tribal squabbles" regarding the EU's budget and French and Dutch rejection of the body's constitution, Mr Mbeki said he did not think the problems would impact on Africa. "President Barroso is committed to progress and development of Africa regardless of issues of trade, I have maintained a regular contact with heads of states who are part of the EU, so whatever might be happening within EU, I do not think it will have an impact on Africa," said Mr. Mbeki.
President Barroso said the union was re-affirming its commitment to Africa adding that they would continue supporting Africa. "South Africa is a very essential partner of the EU, we will closely support South Africa in its efforts to fight poverty," said Mr Barroso.
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Tuesday, 28 June 2005
European Commissioner for Development Louis Michel and European Commissioner for Trade Peter Mandelson will be in New York on June 27 and 28 2005 to participate in the UN High Level Dialogue on Financing for Development. This event is an important step in the preparation of the UN Summit in September, which will assess the progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Both Commissioners call on all to ensure that the UN Summit is followed by concrete efforts to do more, faster and better in the fight against poverty.

Commissioner Michel will stress the strong political commitment of the European Union to accelerate progress towards the Millenium Development Goals, in particular through an increased level of Official Development Aid, as confirmed by the last European Council. Speaking in New York, Commissioner Michel said: “By setting ambitious targets, the EU has consolidated its position as world’s biggest aid donor. The undertaking to increase Overseas Development Assistance to 0.56% by 2010 and 0.7% by 2015 also sets the example for the rest of the donors, looking ahead to a UN Summit which must deliver a dramatic improvement in the lives of millions of people. Business as usual is not an option”.

Commissioners Michel and Mandelson will participate in the Ministerial meeting on June 28. Both Commissioner Michel and Commissioner Mandelson with meet UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. Commissioner Michel will hold meetings with, among other leaders, the President of the General Assembly, Jean Ping. He will present the Commission’s view of the sustainable development, linking it with broader issues including security, environment, health, gender and globalization. On June 28 Commissioner Mandelson will address a Council of Foreign Relations breakfast on the subject of ‘The Progressive Case for Open Markets’.
Agreed at a UN Summit in 2000 by 191 countries, the Millennium Development Goals set out to achieve 8 key poverty-reduction objectives by 2015. These include cutting by a half the number of people living in extreme poverty (less than $1/day), cutting by two thirds children mortality and providing access to primary school for all children.
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Monday, 27 June 2005
PES Conference on Fair Trade
European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005- Extracts fromf the speech of Peter Mandelson, EU Trade Commissioner
“Fair trade is one of the key tools both to enhance sustainable development and to fight poverty”. I fully subscribe to this statement of the International Fair Trade Movement. Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families. If today world leaders are focussing on the unacceptable poverty that still scars the lives of hundreds of millions, you can take some credit for that interest. Not every consumer looks at the supermarket shelf and wonders which coffee will do most to make the world a better place. But many do. I don’t think it an exaggeration to say that it’s largely thanks to the voluntary initiative, commitment and enthusiasm of the Fair Trade movement.
Fair Trade teaches us that consumers are not condemned to be only bargain-hunters. The healthy, sometimes startling, growth of Fair Trade product sales in many EU countries shows that consumers do take account of considerations about conditions of production. The reaction of large retailers and corporate interests shows that they too are sensitive - supremely sensitive - to this dimension of consumer behaviour. Fair Trade has set an agenda and has raised our awareness – a factor which no serious player can afford to ignore. This is quite an achievement. But what lessons can be drawn from Fair Trade for policy making – and that puts me on the spot.
The key lesson is that trade is not just about the dismal science of economics: it is especially not about saying that the laws of comparative advantage ensure that trade is at all times, in all cases, to the benefit of all. Trade is about people, their livelihoods, their families, sometimes their survival: Fair Trade reminds us of that strongly, and I am happy to continue the dialogue that Fair Trade movement has opened with me. It’s good for me to be reminded of that.
Alternative trade structures bring real benefits to participating producers. But it would in my view be wrong to jump to the opposite conclusion that conventional trade is automatically exploitative, unfair and wrong. I said earlier that trade policy is not just economics. But when you look at a commodity like coffee it’s clear that downplaying economics does not allow you in some way to suspend the laws of economics. If coffee prices rise, desperately poor people will plant coffee bushes. Three years later there will be too much coffee and prices will fall. The only part of that process which we have a chance of stopping today is the existence of desperate poverty – not the cyclical rise and fall of prices. Fair trade takes the direct route to a better tomorrow by offering price guarantees, and much besides. But for the Fair Trade solution to be a global solution we would have to ensure that only Fair Trade coffee was sold. Let me tell you one thing: powerful as the Commissioner for Trade is, some things are still beyond my powers!
The trade policy I pursue takes the slower route: working with the grain of economics to get to the heart of the problems by eliminating poverty. Trade policy is about using trade to make poverty history. Colonially-directed terms of trade may have contributed to impoverishment in the past. Trade opening – making use of comparative advantages in a global context - has worked in the recent past to lift hundreds of millions out of poverty. The fact that not all have been so lifted means that we have to do more.
In trade policy, we pursue a variety of routes to contribute to poverty reduction and global justice. First, there is the important multilateral agenda in the WTO. The current multilateral round of negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda, is in my view the most important tool to spread benefits from trade liberalisation more evenly among all trading partners, including the Developing Countries. I want this round to be a success, and I want to use it to bring Developing Countries closer to the world trading system in order that they can benefit from it.
The EU has set a clear pro development and progressive liberalisation agenda for the multilateral round: The EU will not push for tariff cuts for weak and vulnerable countries as part of the Doha Round. As regards market access for goods and services, we will allow Developing Countries to open sensitive sectors at a pace determined by their capacity and their development needs. I have called for WTO negotiators to reach early agreement on the exact form such special and differential treatment may take. On cotton, I proposed accelerated Doha Round agreements on reducing support for cotton producers in the richer industrialised countries and fair rules for African producers.
Second, as far as the bilateral agenda is concerned, the EU is reviewing its rules of origin to make them more development friendly and to help Developing Countries to exploit market access to the EU. The Commission has called on the G8 to provide much higher levels of trade development assistance and will contribute to this. We have also suggested that all other developed countries extend quota and tariff free access to all least-developed countries as the EU does under its Everything But Arms preferential access scheme.

Third, as far as ongoing negotiations are concerned, I am ready to explore with our trading partners the potential for including in agreements specific incentives targeted at improving market access for fair trade products. The Economic Partnership Agreements are a good test case for this since the promotion of Fair Trade is already included in the Cotonou Agreement.
With regard to our future fair trade policy agenda, I will not present you a “Fair Trade Action Plan” here and now. But I would like us to engage in a debate both within the different services in the Commission – because this goes far beyond trade policy and DG Trade only – and between the COM and the Fair Trade Movement to jointly describe how we act more coherently.

I see several issues for this future debate: First, we need to assess whether we need a Fair Trade standard. The Fair Trade movement has done a good job in organising itself with the Fair Trade Organisation mark and the Fair Trade Labelling Organisations International mark. I also appreciate the various genuine efforts being made by mainstream retailers and other independent certifiers to offer consumers assurance on supply chain conditions. I can not tell European consumers which label is the right one and how they should spend their money.

Second, we should look at possibilities to foster Fair Trade in our procurement laws. I do not know at this stage to what extent this will prove possible, but I can assure that I want a discussion about its feasibility.
Third, we need a single contact point in the Commission on Fair Trade. This is key if we are to act more coherently in the future.
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The revised Cotonou Agreement will be signed tomorrow in Luxembourg by the EU and 76 countries from Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The new provisions cover a broad range of issues, including a provision for a strengthened political dialogue and references to the fight against terrorism, cooperation in countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the International Criminal Court (ICC).

“The signature of the revised agreement is yet another important step to strengthen the privileged relationship between the European Union and countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The global agreement represents a balanced package which improves upon the efficiency and quality of our partnership and reinforces our common commitment to the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty reduction remains at the heart of the revised Agreement, while the continuation of sustainable, long-term financing and inclusion of important security and political dialogue provisions render our partnership even more effective”, stated Louis Michel, Commissioner for Development and Humanitarian Aid, at the occasion of the ceremony.

The signature of the revised Agreement will be followed by a process of ratification. In order to allow for early application, transitional measures will allow the majority of the revised provisions to enter into force upon signature. However, the provisions relating to the new financial resources can not take effect before the entry into force of the next multi-annual financial framework. In this context, the EU has committed to maintaining a threshold of financing at least equivalent to that of the 9th European Development Fund, taking into account inflation, growth and the effect of enlargement to 10 new Member States.

The Cotonou agreement sets out the strategic framework for relations between the EU and countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. It was signed on 23 June 2000 at Cotonou in Benin. The Cotonou Agreement focuses on poverty reduction as its principal objective, to be achieved through political dialogue, development aid and closer economic and trade cooperation.

The revision process took place in accordance with Article 95 of the Cotonou agreement which provides for a revision clause allowing the Agreement to be adapted every 5 years (with the exception of the provisions on economic cooperation and trade which are subject to a separate procedure). At the end of February 2004, ACP and EU partners notified the provisions each party wished to revise. The negotiations were formally launched at an ACP-EU Council of Ministers meeting in Gaborone in May 2004 and were concluded on 23 February 2005.